Max Planck Digital Library
COLLEEN CAMPBELL leads open access engagement at the Max Planck Digital Library and coordinates the Open Access 2020 Initiative, an international effort comprising over 4,000 research institutions from five continents, that aims to transition today’s scholarly journals from the current subscription system to new open access publishing models. Previously European Director for Strategic Partnerships at ITHAKA, she has over 20 years’ experience across all areas of the academic information sector. She sits on the board of trustees of the industry association UKSG, serves on the LIBER Open Access Working Group and participates in a number of other community open access initiatives.
Event:Focus on Open Science - Chapter XXXVII: Stockholm
Title: Are we ready for what comes next?
Abstract: The concept of transformative agreements (TAs) was first put into practice by national library consortia in northern Europe just a few short years ago. With hundreds of TAs now negotiated in more than 60 countries, the library community has enabled more than half a million new research articles to be published openly to date.
Today, libraries that are just starting out with TA strategies can benefit from the experience and benchmarks of the first movers as well as new community resources such as the LIBER OA WG’s Four Urgent Recommendations for Open Access Negotiations with Publishers, the 15th Berlin Open Access Conference, and the ESAC Reference Guide.
In the meantime, the first movers in Europe are now reaching their targets of 100% open access for their research articles and are beginning to look ahead at what comes next. If the largest commercial publishers were to flip their entire journal portfolios to open access business models tomorrow, would the library community be ready?
All Sessions by Colleen Campbell
OA2020: Achieving A Rapid And Scholarly Oriented Transition to Open Access
Open Access 2020 is a global initiative that aims to induce the swift, smooth and scholarly-oriented transformation of today’s scholarly journals from subscription to open access publishing. OA2020 aims to bring a new approach to the transactional side of the publishing system and the ways in which its cash flow is organized. The goal is to achieve on a larger scale what SCOAP3 has successfully done for some core journals in the field of High-Energy Physics: to convert journals from subscription to open access by re-directing the existing subscription spend into open access funds, and from these to finance the essential services that publishers provide for scholarly communication, i.e. the administration of peer review, editing, and open access article dissemination. The OA2020 initiative is based on the understanding that the subscription system that has underpinned scholarly journals will eventually become obsolete. Subscription belongs to an era when the challenge for the sharing of knowledge was physical distribution; a journal’s hard copies needed to be laid out, printed and shipped, with payment, organized accordingly. While the modernization of the publishing industry has enabled easy distribution in a context of abundant supply, the step that has yet to happen is the cash flow’s shift from the journal level to the article level. Scholarship’s crucial publishing services should be remunerated directly, rather than indirectly through subscriptions. With such a move, the publishing system will be able to engage with the realities and potentials of the 21st century. In considering the financial aspects of this initiative, OA2020 builds on analysis that shows that there is already enough money within journal publishing to allow for a transition to open access that will be – at a minimum – cost-neutral. This analysis is outlined in a widely-read White Paper, published by the Max Planck Digital Library in April 2015. The key to success in the transformation from the current subscription model to Open Access publishing is in the hands of the world’s research organizations, as they decide – in tandem with their libraries – how to allocate their funds. What is required is a broad, global consensus among these organizations to withdraw all spending from journal subscriptions and re-allocate those same resources to publishing services.
Time to wake up and smell the coffee!
While attention has shifted to the broader spectrum of Open Science, Open Access—one component of Open Science—has yet to be achieved on a large scale. Over the last 15 years, open access has been adopted as an underlying principle in a great number of national and international research and funding policies and has spawned new publishing platforms. These efforts have made some progress in increasing the amount of research outputs freely accessible, but they have come with significant additional cost to institutions and, perhaps more dangerously, they have not had an impact on the paywall system itself, which is as vigorous and prosperous as ever: the bulk of today’s scholarly journals continues to be locked behind the paywalls of a relatively small number of commercial publishers whose subscription prices increase year after year. Furthermore, while it is widely accepted that the money currently spent on subscriptions, globally, would be more than enough to support a transition to open access publishing, there is a second revenue stream flowing unmonitored and unchecked from research institutions to subscription publishers for open access publishing fees for their hybrid and pure gold open access journals. While we continue to develop and support new open access publishing initiatives, in order to have a transformative impact on the current paywall system, we must develop a strategy that also addresses the subscription system head-on!
The Foundations of an effective Open Access strategy
Open Access is a necessary component of Open Science, and while we work to build an Open Science environment, the foundations of Open Access have not yet been consolidated. All stakeholders involved in research and the dissemination of results must recognize their role in laying those foundations, and libraries, in particular, are equipped and empowered with the tools to shape and engineer a solid open access strategy.
Colleen Campbell, OA2020
Presentation: Are we ready for what comes next?
Colleen Campbell (Max Planck Digital Library) | 'Accelerating the Open Access Transition: Progress of Transformative Agreements'
Abstract: For nearly 20 years, the research community has sought to overturn the subscription business model in scholarly journal publishing to unlock the potentials of digital technologies and enable an open research environment. While more than a decade of efforts have bolstered institutional repositories and other open access publishing alternatives, these efforts have had little impact in challenging the market dominance of the large commercial publishers.
More recently publisher open access negotiations have been identified as a viable pathway to finally regain some control over how existing scholarly journals are financed, to deliver open access publishing options to authors in the journals they prefer.
Now, the number of transformative open access agreements being negotiated, globally, is growing exponentially, bringing together national library consortia, institutions and publishers of all shapes and sizes in the transition of scholarly publishing to open access. As the transition picks up speed, what impact are these agreements having in the transition of scholarly journals to open access and what insights have we gained?
Q&A Session with Dr Paul Ayris, Colleen Campbell, Dr Paolo Budroni.
Moderated by Iryna Kuchma